Friday, 16 June 2017

Call for Chapters: Technology and the City

Technology and the City: Towards a Philosophy of Urban Technologies

Editors: Michael Nagenborg, Margoth González Woge, Taylor Stone, and Pieter Vermaas

The book will be published in the series “Philosophy of Engineering and Technology” (Springer).

Outline

All over the world massive investments are being made to realize visions of the ‘Smart City.’ Technology plays a central role in making future cities more sustainable, to make urban governance more transparent and just, and increase the efficiency in various sectors ranging from transport to education. What is often overlooked in the process of making cities ‘smart’ is the fundamental role of technologies in the urban lifeworld. Philosophy of Technology can help understanding this role and by this contribute to a more sophisticated thinking for developing smart cities. The contributions in this volume map out how technologies are used and designed to plan, maintain, govern, demolish, and destroy the city and its part. They demonstrate how urban technologies shape and are shaped by fundamental concepts and principles, like citizenship, publicness, democracy, and nature. And, they explore how to think of technological mediated urban space as part of the human condition. The volume will thus contribute to the much-needed discussion on technology-enabled urban futures from the perspective of Philosophy of Technology.

The studies and insights offered in this volume will also open the discussion on the particular methodological challenges for Philosophy of Technology to do justice to the city.

Potential topics

  • Technologies in the urban lifeworld (e.g., public and individual transport, infrastructures, information and communication technologies, surveillance and security technologies)
  • Urban co-existence and urban justice
  • Diversity, Technology, and the city
  • Technologies for urban planning and urban governance
  • Technology and sustainability (including urban wilderness, urban wildlife, and parks)
  • Cities as centers of technological innovation
  • Risk, disaster, and resilience
  • War: Destruction and reconstruction of the urban landscape
  • Cities and technologies in Non-Western traditions
  • Networked Cities
  • Theoretical perspectives and frameworks

Time line

We invite abstracts with a length of maximum 1.000 words. Each chapter in the volume should have a length of between 8.000 and 12.000 words (including reference).

All abstracts will be reviewed by the editors. Chapters will be reviewed by the editors and peer reviewed by the contributors.

Due dates for abstracts: November 1, 2017
Notification of acceptance: December 1, 2017
Submission of the chapters: March 15, 2018
Due dates for reviews: April 30, 2018
Notification of final acceptance and feedback to authors: June 15, 2018
Submission of revised chapter: September 15, 2018
Publication of edited volume: Spring 2019

Please, submit your abstract by email to: m.h.nagenborg@utwente.nl

The abstracts need to be prepared for blind peer review. Please, include a short CV in a separate document. Authors should also indicate if they consider including images in the final publication.

Contact

Michael Nagenborg, University of Twente (NL)

m.h.nagenborg@utwente.nl

Call for Chapters as PDF

You can download the Call as PDF from my German web site.

Monday, 5 June 2017

Lachlan Urquhart: Designers are regulators

To celebrate the tracks on technology and the city at CEPE/ETHICOMP and SPT 2017, we will publish a series of interviews. The second interview is with Lachlan Urquhart. He will be presenting his paper titled ‘Ethical Dimensions of User Centric Regulation”’ as part of the ICT and the City track as ETHICOMP/CEPE 2017. The interview has been conducted in May 2017.

What should our readers know about Lachlan Urquhart?

I’m a Scottish researcher based in Nottingham, UK at a multidisciplinary research centre called Horizon Digital Economy Research Institute. My research sits at the interface of Information Technology Law (particularly privacy/data protection and information security law), Human Computer Interaction and Computer Ethics.

I did my undergraduate in law at Edinburgh, my masters in IT law at Strathclyde, and my PhD here at Nottingham in the Horizon Centre for Doctoral Training, School of Computer Science. It’s a great place for doing multidisciplinary research as I spent the first year of my PhD doing a quasi-MSc of modules from science and technology studies, human computer interaction and human factors engineering through to statistics, programming, mobile app building and geospatial information services. This really opened my eyes to how other disciplines work and got me thinking about new directions for research. I was also based in the Mixed Reality Lab (MRL) here at Nottingham, surrounded by sociologists, computer scientists, artists and musicians looking at what it means to live with ubiquitous computing. Being at the edge of what is going on technically makes for interesting legal research too!

What has brought you to the city (as a research topic)?

I got increasingly interested in smart cities during my PhD when I helped Lilian Edwards organise a major Smart Cities conference at Strathclyde University a couple of years ago. Following this I edited a special edition of a UK IT law society magazine, Computers and Law, dedicated to contributions from the conference. I find the work of people like Rob Kitchin particularly influential because it surfaces concerns of citizens in the wider narratives about how urban life is changing as computing is embedded into the built environment. It also links to my other research interests in surveillance studies eg following David Murakami Wood’s UbiCity project, design eg environmental criminology/situational crime prevention and even work I’d done a few years ago on privacy implications of domestic drones.

I also have colleagues at the MRL doing research on adaptive architecture, so we’ve had many discussions about the legal and ethical implications of this too! Most recently, as I’ve also been working in the area of privacy by design for the domestic internet of things for a while, I’ve recently started looking to issues around Industrial Internet of Things, particularly cybersecurity considerations, and that brings us back to the realm of critical infrastructure and, linked to that, smart cities.

In your paper, “Ethical Dimensions of User Centric Regulation,” you argue that it’s about time that designers need to be recognized and thought of as regulators. You seem to take “Code is law” quite literal, right?

Yeah, Lessig is a big influence in IT law, so a lot of my LL.M was spent reading all his work! During the PhD I started to question this notion of code is law more, thinking what a turn to the design community to help solve tough regulatory challenges might actually mean in practice. We see drive towards IT design in the law, for example in Article 25 of the new EU GDPR, but what this means in practice is more difficult to anticipate. This informed my PhD work where I looked at how to situate the role of IT designers in regulation from four perspectives, namely - conceptually, legally, empirically, and through a design intervention. At the conceptual level, as in the ETHICOMP paper, I argued the case for why designers are now regulators. I focus on the HCI community, unpacking how their proximity to end users as a route for establishing their regulatory legitimacy, for example through participatory/co-design approaches. I also wanted to look at this from another level using legal case studies. So, I focused on smart meters and domestic internet of things as two complicated cases for privacy by design thinking about how the legal rights and responsibilities of different actors, from end users to third party marketers, play out. I was particularly interested in frameworks regulating access and control around personal data flows. These case studies were useful for thinking about the legal challenges, but I also wanted to understand what privacy by design might mean in practice for the internet of things, so I did a range interviews with experts from IT law and design, to get a sense of the challenges these concepts face in practice (as they are both emergent, nebulous terms). Similarly, I was involved in developing a design tool, a set of ‘ideation cards’, that translates the new GDPR into a more accessible, physical playing card based format. These cards were developed, tested and evaluated with different settings, from start-ups/SMEs to larger organisations ! Cumulatively, this work gave significant practical and conceptual insight as to what it might mean for designers to be regulators, how concepts are negotiated around, where strengths and weaknesses lie, what motivations exist and so forth. In any case, I think as law increasingly turns to design to help deal with challenges of regulating emerging technologies, we need much more dialogue and support to bring these communities closer together.

Unlike design, the process of law-making is delegated to institutions under democratic control. If we take the idea of “designers as regulators” seriously, doesn’t that imply that we need more democratic control over the design process?

That is one of the key tensions here. As regulatory increasingly involves non-state actors, and the law is pushing IT designers to be involved in regulation, I think the challenge is how to understand the scope of that role and make it legitimate. Translating traditional metrics of public accountability, like due process, is one approach, but I’ve been focusing on understanding what new approaches IT designers can offer as regulators and how this may establish their legitimacy. By focusing on a particular IT design community, Human Computer Interaction, I’ve argued their proximity and focus on needs of end users is a route forward. They are in a position to understand user needs from IT through tools like participatory, co or value sensitive design. When repurposed to understanding regulatory needs, for example around user rights, the designers and their tools can go beyond top down understandings of legitimacy, to engage with practices, relationships and routines of users at a more situated level. This helps get a sense of how technologies impact users in different settings, going beyond top down approaches of traditional regulators, where specificities of different users are often neglected. Designers also have scope for action, as these findings can be reflected in design. How they respond is bounded up in how ethical or legitimate their actions may be deemed. They can inform regulatory interventions mediated by the technology, although there are still limits to this because of the disconnect between how a technology is used in practice vs how it is designed. Nevertheless, understanding how to build awareness, engagement and supporting reflection of IT designers on regulatory dimensions of their work is an important line of inquiry.

Besides your own work, what readings would you suggest for someone interested in your topic?

Where to begin… here are some books/papers I found particularly influential:

In a nutshell, what would you recommend to municipalities with regards to smart city technologies?

Engage with citizens as users to get a situated understanding of their needs and respond to those. Avoid treating the city purely at a macro level, but instead engage with different settings of technology deployment and how these interventions might shape the practices of communities (for better or worse).

Friday, 2 June 2017

Diane Michelfelder: Are we smart enough to design ‘smart’ cities with attention to the interests of urban wildlife?

To celebrate the tracks on technology and the city at CEPE/ETHICOMP and SPT 2017, we will publish a series of interviews. The first interview is with Dr. Diane Michelfelder. She will be presenting her paper titled ‘Urban Landscapes and the Techno-Animal Condition’ as part of the Technology and the City special track as SPT 2017. The interview has been conducted in May 2017 by Taylor Stone, one of the co-organizers of the “Technology and the City” track at SPT.

Can you tell us about yourself? Who is Diane Michelfelder?

By trade, I am a philosopher. Specifically, I am professor of philosophy at Macalester College, a liberal arts college in Minnesota. Much of my research, as well as my teaching, takes place at the intersection of 20th century European philosophy and the philosophy of technology. When I was in graduate school, I never gave a thought to the philosophy of technology. But, when I came out of graduate school and got my first job, it was at Cal Poly, so a natural spot for that interest to develop. I had the good fortune while there to participate in a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute at Penn State, directed by Carl Mitcham and Leonard Waks on “Rethinking Technology: The Philosophy of Technology since World War II.” As the familiar expression goes, that changed everything. It led to my becoming very involved in the Society for Philosophy and Technology. I was SPT president from 2007-2009, and since 2014 I’ve been the Editor-in-Chief of SPT’s journal, Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, along with Neelke Doorn of TU-Delft. I am also quite active in fPET, the Forum for Philosophy, Engineering, and Philosophy, an informal society which I helped organize and which meets in alternate years to SPT.

What brought you to ‘the city’ as a research topic?

Good question. One strand of my interest in “the city” as a research topic, especially when it comes to matters such as the Internet of Things, self-driving vehicles, and the goods they promote, is tied to the philosophy of technology. But I’m also interested in the city from another perspective. Once I lived in a small rural town with no stores and no postal delivery service. It did though have lots of wildlife, and for some reason—maybe I really missed living in an urban environment?—I got to thinking about ethical issues related to urban animals, particularly about what kinds of responsibilities we have toward them. While these two strands of interest might seem quite different from one another, I think they have something in common. As cities become “smarter” by becoming more driven by algorithmic representations, some values become more pronounced and cultivated, while others become at risk of getting passed over and ignored. It’s the latter that I’m interested in the most. I have a recent paper, “Risk, Disequilibrium, and Virtue” about this, in Technology in Society. It’s the same with urban wildlife. They are the Instagrams of the animal world—here one moment and gone the next. They are also not easily amenable to being categorized, and so as a result they’ve tended to slip under the radar of philosophical inquiry.

Your forthcoming paper at SPT 2017 – ‘Urban Landscapes and the Techno-Animal Condition’  – will focus on how technological artifacts reinforce perceptions of wildlife as non-human ‘Others.’ Can you elaborate on how technologies perpetuate and/or reinforce such perceptions? What sorts of ethical concerns, both salient and obscure, do you see arising from this?

There are multiple ways in which technologies act to reinforce the perception of wildlife as non-human others. For example, think of the popularity of webcams found across the US that are focused on the nests of breeding pairs of urban eagles. The hatching, feeding, and fledgling of the baby birds has become a kind of public spectacle; we eagerly click on our tablets or iPhones to watch them but do not necessarily draw closer to them, and vice-versa, through this activity. Images from trail cams arguably “otherize” wildlife even more than webcams, as they capture an animal’s movements in black and white, which makes a creature such as a cougar appear to be more sinister than it actually is. Technologies like these, launched with good intentions, can also work to feed the perception that urban wildlife are little more than pests to be relocated or eradicated. Probably the poster child for this was the initial 2002 rollout of Toronto’s “green bins”, which, for the city’s raccoons, amounted to having a food truck located at every household intended just for them. But urban wildlife corridors, constructed with the best of intentions so that animals can move and forage freely, can also “otherwise” wildlife by keeping them apart and invisible from human city dwellers.

Have you encountered any urban designs, artifacts, or policies that promote and facilitate positive interactions between humans and wildlife, and that can be seen as an example of best practice?

One of the developments I find promising has to do with changing perceptions and policies in the US regarding feral cats. An organization that comes to mind here is Alley Cat Allies. ACA accepts as a basic premise that we have positive moral responsibilities toward feral cats, including giving them protective shelters so they can better survive during the winter. City officials in Atlantic City, New Jersey, for example, turned to ACA to control the populations of cat colonies through trap-neuter-release rather than by exterminating the cats as though they were pests. Since these cats congregate under the iconic boardwalk in Atlantic City, they are routinely seen by tourists, who in turn have the opportunity to learn more about the work of the ACA. More recently, some city humane shelters are adopting out feral cats as “working cats” who have “jobs” controlling rodent populations in technological habitats such as warehouses and the like. And building urban parks along abandoned railroad tracks is a great way of bringing people, wildlife, technology, and nature together. The High Line in New York really stands out here, but there are others like it as well.

Another creative use of technology with regard to urban wildlife is its use in just figuring out where wildlife are actually hanging out. That’s the aim of Chicago’s Lincoln Park Zoo’s Urban Wildlife Conservation Program, which just a few months ago went national in scope. It uses motion cameras and audio equipment set up in and around Chicago to do a “wildlife scan” four times a year lasting for eight months each; they have over a million images which citizen scientists can identify online. Imagine the maps that could be created from this big data set! Just making urban wildlife more visible by such means could contribute to individuals and communities assuming positive responsibilities for their well-being.

Central to your paper is the role of technologies in human-wildlife relations. How has the philosophy of technology engaged with animal and wildlife issues to date? Do you see a gap here, or need for further work by philosophers of technology?

More generally, your paper can be seen as a work of both philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. What opportunities and challenges do you see for interaction between these fields of research? And, how do you see city-focused research contributing to (or hindering) their interaction?

From their beginning in the 1970s, inquiry in the philosophy of technology and environmental ethics developed along two separate tracks. Apart from raising questions about our relations to animals in the context of agriculture and biotechnology (I’m thinking primarily of Paul Thompson’s work here, of course), the philosophy of technology has understandably tended to take engineered objects themselves as its main focus of consideration, whether epistemological or ethical, and conceded interest in animals to other disciplines. Even when its investigations have expanded to look at issues related to the environment, such as the relation between technologically intensive ways of living and climate change, animals have been neglected. One philosopher of technology who is interested in expanding philosophy of technology’s tent of inquiry to include thinking about animals is Ashley Shew Heflin. Ashley wants to shift our perceptions to give animals their due as tool-users and to show how including animals within the “tent” can make a difference for understanding what it is to be homo faber. But to go back to your question about whether there’s a gap in current philosophy of technology with respect to animals, the answer is: Absolutely yes. I hope the approach I’m taking of adopting the city as a starting point in thinking about our ethical responsibilities toward urban wildlife would be a step toward addressing that gap as well as helping to bridge the fields of philosophy of technology and environmental ethics themselves.

Besides your own work, what readings would you recommend for someone interested in the relationship between cities, technologies, and urban wildlife?

Sure, I have a few suggestions. Clare Palmer’s seminal article Placing Animals in Urban Environmental Ethics (2003) is a must-read, along with her 2010 book Animal Ethics in Context. Sue Donaldson’s and Will Kymlicka’s Zoopolis, their thoughtful and provocative study aimed at developing a theory of animal “citizenship” is another key work. I’ve certainly been inspired by (as well as critical of) their view that urban wildlife are “liminal creatures”—neither truly wild or truly domesticated—and what follows from that with respect to what we owe them. Erin Luther’s Tales of Cruelty and Belonging: In Search of An Ethic for Urban Human-Wildlife Relations (2013) — which takes an incident involving Toronto’s raccoons as its point of departure — and Thom van Dooren’s and Deborah Bird Rose’s Storied Places in a Multi-Species City (2012) are also well worth reading. Both of these papers take seriously the idea that urban areas offer the possibility of “shared places” within which humans and wildlife can fruitfully coexist. From a “feet/paws” in the field research angle, there’s a lot of interesting work being done by the Center for Urban Resilience.

What recommendations do you have for either urban designers or citizens regarding how to engage with urban wildlife?

Riffing on the title of the most recent book by Frans de Waal, Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?, I wonder: Are we smart enough to design “smart” cities with attention not only to the interests of their human inhabitants but of urban wildlife as well? In the rush to make cities “smarter”, I worry they may end up being less hospitable and less friendly to urban wildlife than they already are. So for urban planners, policy makers, and all others involved in creating the AI-driven elements of these cities of the future, I’d recommend being vigilant to make sure that designs work to promote the interests of both human and non-human animals who inhabit these spaces. Recently I read, for instance, that the sensors on Google’s self-driving cars can’t detect a squirrel crossing the street in front of it, and so wouldn’t slow up to avoid it. That’s simply not acceptable. On a more positive note, I also saw while on a recent test drive in San Francisco at night a self-driving Chevy Bolt appeared to slow down for an animal crossing the road. What sort of animal? You guessed it… it was a raccoon.

Wednesday, 31 May 2017

Technology and the City: Two tracks at upcoming conferences

The next weeks will be packed with exciting talks and stimulating discussions on technology and the city! Two major conferences will feature dedicated tracks on the role of technologies as part of urban existence.

The joint CEPE/ETHICOMP conference will be held in Turin from June 5 till June 8 in Turin. Shane Epting, Anders Albrechtslund, and I have co-organized a track on „ICT and the City,“ which will feature the following contributions:

  • Margoth González Woge: Smart Environments: rethinking the boundaries of human and environmental enhancement
  • Lachlan Urquhart: Ethical Dimensions of User Centric Regulation
  • Brandt Dainow: Where does the city really end? Redefining Smart Cities and their ethical dangers
  • Olli I. Heimo, et al.: Ethical Problems in Creating Historically Representative Mixed Reality Make-belief
  • Laura Fichtner: A Smart City of Flows: How Smart Cities Can Shape Urban Experience and Creativity

The program and the abstracts can be found on the conference website.

The bi-annual conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology (SPT) will be held in Darmstadt from June 14 till June 17, 2017, in Darmstadt. For SPT 2017, Remmon Barbaza, Margoth Gonzalez Woge, Taylor Stone, Pieter Vermaas and I organized a track on „Technology and the City,“ which fill bring together the following contributions:

  • Sara Eloy and Pieter Vermaas: Over-the-counter housing design: the city when the gap between architects and laypersons narrows
  • Taylor Stone: The Morality of Darkness: Urban nights, light pollution, and evolving values
  • Giovanni Frigo: ‚Green Buildings’ in the City? A Reflection about Technology, Sustainability Indexes, and Energy Ethics
  • Felipe Loureiro: Binding Surfaces: Architecture and The Interplay of Walls and Screens
  • Michael Nagenborg: Elevators as urban technologies: Past, present, and future
  • Vlad Niculescu-Dinca: Towards a sedimentology of infrastructures / A geological approach for understanding the city
  • Alessia Calafiore, Nicola Guarino and Guido Boella: Recognizing urban forms through the prism of roles theory
  • Shane Epting: Automated Vehicles and Transportation Justice: Two Challenges for Planners and Engineers
  • Diane Michelfelder: Urban Landscapes and the Techno-Animal Condition
  • Remmon Barbaza: Metro Manila: A City Without Syntax?
  • El Putnam: Locative Reverb: Artistic Practice, Digital Technology, and the Grammatization of the City
  • Margoh Gonzalez Woge: Technological Environmentality: technologies 'absent presence' in everyday environments
  • Brandt Dainow: Philosophical Framework for Smart City Analysis
  • Qian Wang and Xue Yu: Technology and the City: From the Perspective of Organicism
  • Jathan Sadowski: Parameters of Possibility: Envisioning and Constructing the Smart Urban Future

Of course, we are excited about the recognition of Vlad Niculescu-Dinca's work, who won the SPT’s Early Career Award for his paper. The track will also feature talks of the current president of the Philosophy of the City Research Group (Shane Epting) and the Vice-President/President-Elect (Pieter Vermaas).

Check out the conference website for more information.

To celebrate these events, a series of interviews with participants of both tracks will be published on this blog. Stay tuned for more good things to come!

Saturday, 28 January 2017

Video recording of Smart Cities panel @ CPDP 2017


Video recording of our session "Surveillance and Privacy in Smart Cities" (organized by David Murakamie Woord, chair: William Webster, presenters: Michael Nagenborg, Maria Murphy, and Gemma Galdon-Clavell)

Saturday, 14 January 2017

Interview on Responsible Urban Robotics



The interview has been conducted on occasion of the panel on "Responsible Robotics" at the Robophilosophy 2016 conference in Aarhus (Denmark). The panel has been organized by the 4TU.Center for Ethics and Technologies and the Foundation for Responsible Robotics (FRR). If you are working on Urban Robotics, consider joining our FRR working group. The recording of the full panel can be found here.

Tuesday, 25 October 2016

CfP "Technology and the City" track @ SPT2017

Special Track: Technology and the City @ SPT 2017: The Grammar of Things (Darmstadt, Germany, June 14-17, 2017)

Track organizers:

Call for Abstracts (Deadline: Dec 5, 2016)

Technology is no stranger to the city. Cities are designed, built, maintained, and destroyed by technological means. Technologies shape our cities and are in turn shaped by city life. However, until recently, cities have been given relatively little attention by philosophers of technology.” In line with the overall theme of the conference, we would like to invite papers that reflect on cities, which themselves can be viewed as complex, larger scale technological artifacts made up of various lower level artifacts (e.g., buildings, streets, and parks). While the city can’t be reduced to just material artifacts, we encourage perspectives that explore the material aspect of the city.

Initial work on this theme suggests specific topics, such as overcoming the “urban dualism” (Kingwell 2008) reinforcing the split between public space and the public sphere. We also invite scholars to look into the backstage of the city and explore the political and ethical implications of infrastructures (Easterling 2016). Questions of aesthetics, equity, privacy, and sustainability (to name but a few values) are pertinent to our moral appraisals of cities. Contributions may address these or other issues by looking at the “urban machinery” (Hård and Misa 2008) of communication, energy, industrial, or transportation systems. This, in turn, invites reflections on the methodologies needed to understand the interplay between these technologies, which operate in the background, and the ways in which human beings act in and perceive the world. This can also include critical reflections on how such city infrastructures constitute perceptions and experiences of the natural world (Stefanovic and Scharper 2012).

Finally, we welcome contributions from the perspective of political philosophy on urban justice and urban coexistence (including coexistence with non-human animals). This may include contributions on the role of technology in urban governance as well as contributions on how to govern technological developments in the city.

Further suggested topics are:
  • Ontology of urban technological artifacts
  • Axiological dimensions of urban technological artifacts
  • Interplay between the built environment and human behavior
  • Interplay between built and natural environments
  • The role of infrastructures in city life
  • Transition towards smart environments (ambient intelligence, smart cities)
  • Non-human agency
  • Urban justice and quality of life
  • Dwelling in the city: women, LGBT, minorities, and under-represented groups
  • The politics of enabling and disabling environments
  • Architectural design and social movements, political and artistic interventions
  • Urban coexistence
  • Emotional, corporal, cognitive, and symbolic dimensions of the city
  • Relevant research methodologies or theoretical frameworks
The track is supported by the Philosophy of the City Research Group. Selected contributions of the track will be published in an edited volume on “Cities and technologies” to be published in book series Philosophy of Engineering and Technology (Springer).

Submission of abstracts


Proposals for contributions to this track can be made by sending abstracts of about 350 words by December 5, 2016, via Easychair. Please make sure to submit to the special track “Technology and the City”.

Further information about the SPT conference and its venue can be found at www.philosophie.tu-darmstadt.de/spt2017.

References

  • Easterling, Keller (2016): Extrastatecraft. London and New York City: Verso.
  • Hård, Mikael, and Thomas J. Misa (2008): Urban machinery: inside modern European cities. MIT Press.
  • Kingwell, Mark (2008): Concrete Reveries: Consciousness and the City. Toronto: Penguin.
  • Stefanovic, Ingrid L., and Stephen B. Scharper (2012): The Natural City: Re-envisioning the Built Environment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.